This is a condition that makes it difficult for one to fall or stay asleep leading to lack of concentration or memory problems all day making one clumsy, moody or depressed.


  1. Older age
  2. Depression or Anxiety
  3. Stressful work schedules
  4. Medical conditions (such as sleep apnea, asthma, COPD)
  5. Antidepressants or some blood pressure medications


  • Polysomnography: This records brain waves in the blood, heart rate and breathing during sleep. - Physical examinations: such as blood tests to check for thyroid problems or other conditions that may be related to poor sleep.
  • Sleep habits review: a sleepy diary may be required for a couple of weeks, alongside filling a questionnaire to show sleep-wake patterns and level of daytime sleepiness.


  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): This helps control or stop negative thoughts and actions that consistently keeps one awake. Strategies include;
  • Stimulus control therapy: It helps train the mind and body to sleep better and not fight sleep. 
  • Relaxation methods: Involves progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback and breathing exercises that helps control breathing, heart rate and muscle tension so that one can relax. 
  • Sleep restriction: This helps reduce the time spent in bed all day and stops day time napping making one more tired at night.
  • Remaining passively awake (Paradoxical intention): It aims to reduces worry and anxiety about being able to fall asleep by reducing extreme focus on these worries making it easier to sleep.
  1. Medications: Drugs used in treatment of insomnia available only when prescribed by a physician includes; Amitryptiline, Lorazepam, Bromazepam, olanzepine etc while those available OTC includes; Chlorpheniramine maleate, Diphenhydramine, melatonin.


  • Create a step schedule
  • Do not take naps especially during the day
  • Keep your bedroom cool, quiet and dark
  • Get up if you don't fall asleep within 20mins and do something relaxing till you become sleepy
  • Limit caffeine, alcohol and food to earlier in the day
  • Exercise regularly

Leave a comment

This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.